cpu – Internetblog.org.uk https://www.internetblog.org.uk Web hosting, Domain names, Dedicated servers Fri, 29 Jan 2016 11:05:52 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=4.9.5 https://www.internetblog.org.uk/files/2016/01/cropped-favico-32x32.png cpu – Internetblog.org.uk https://www.internetblog.org.uk 32 32 Server Hardware Tips https://www.internetblog.org.uk/post/1581/server-hardware-tips/ Wed, 28 Jul 2010 16:07:31 +0000 http://www.internetblog.org.uk/post/1581/server-hardware-tips/ Much of the discussion about web hosting and servers centers around operating systems, software, and web applications. But one should not overlook hardware, which can make or break website performance. Here are a few hardware tips to make sure you get the most for your money.

1. When possible, opt for the quality, server-grade CPUs (i.e. 64-bit Intel Xeon dual or quad core)

2. The more RAM you have, the better. You can never go wrong by adding memory to your system.

3. Get large, fast hard drives, especially if you plan to run virtual private servers (VPS).

4. For large-scale sites, server redundancy is a good thing, if you can afford it.

5. Multi-core processors improve performance, but correlate the amount of processing power you get with your actual needs. In other words, there is no point in having a 64-core processor for a couple of blogs.

6. Find ways to save power, especially if you have to pay for it. Green servers will save you money and save the environment.

7. Remember that technology is constantly evolving. Plan on needing to upgrade in the future.

Photo Source: Flickr

Server Maintenance Tips https://www.internetblog.org.uk/post/1580/server-maintenance-tips/ Wed, 28 Jul 2010 16:02:01 +0000 http://www.internetblog.org.uk/post/1580/server-maintenance-tips/ Over the course of the past year, we have covered many dedicated server maintenance issues, particularly for servers running Linux. In no particular order, here is a list of some of the more important tips you should remember when taking care of your server.

1. When possible, rely on the distribution updates and repositories. Only add third-party software when absolutely necessary.

2. Periodically run fsck to check the file system.

3. Monitor system and service logs.

4. Disable unused services.

5. Periodically optimize MySQL databases.

6. Monitor CPU and RAM usage.

7. Optimize RAM and swap usage.

8. On larger servers, run the database server on a separate machine, optimize the servers for scalability, and consider using a CDN (Content Delivery Network).

Photo Source: Flickr

Mail Server Causing High Server Load https://www.internetblog.org.uk/post/1535/mail-server-causing-high-server-load/ Thu, 15 Jul 2010 16:26:42 +0000 http://www.internetblog.org.uk/post/1535/mail-server-causing-high-server-load/ Mail letter iconQuestion: My CPU usage on my server is very high, and it seems to be originated from my mail server. What could be the problem?

Answer: If your mail server is sucking up valuable CPU power, there are a couple of possibilities, none of which are pleasant.

1. You or users on your server are getting a lot of emails, more than usual. Although it is possible that it is just a temporary thing, it could be a deliberate attack on your server.

2. Someone is sending spam from your server, using an open relay in your SMTP settings or exploiting a user’s account.

3. Your server is receiving a ridiculous amount of spam (i.e. spam attack). This could be an intentional attack or just a particularly bad day.

Usually, if the CPU upswing is substantial, you should be really concerned about your server’s security. Take a look at the mail server logs and see where the emails are originating and where they are being sent. Take note of IP addresses, user names, and any other useful information. If you cannot figure it out, you can take the data to a security expert who can help you solve the problem.

Server Hardware: Celeron vs. Xeon https://www.internetblog.org.uk/post/1526/server-hardware-celeron-vs-xeon/ Tue, 13 Jul 2010 19:07:32 +0000 http://www.internetblog.org.uk/post/1526/server-hardware-celeron-vs-xeon/ Up close Xeon processor
Intel processors have a variety of names, and there is no shortage in the number of variations. When you are looking to lease or purchase a server, this can be confusing. On the current market, you may find servers with Intel’s Core 2, Celeron, Xeon, and the newer Core i7.

The first distinction that you should make is between processors designed for servers and those that are not. Generally speaking, Core 2 and Celeron processors are for workstations and not servers. The Xeon processors may, in some cases, even have identical architecture to the Core 2 models but will be packaged and sold for servers. Similarly, there are Core i7 chips with similar architecture to high-end Xeon CPUs, but the former is for desktops, while the latter is for servers.

What you truly want to avoid, however, is getting a server with a Celeron processor. While there may be little difference between a high-powered i7 and a similar Xeon, a Celeron processor of the same clock speed will often have less cache and slower FSB. If a server company is trying to market Celeron servers to you, they are actually selling you an inferior product.

Photo Source: Flickr

Apache HTTP Server Optimization: Part 2 https://www.internetblog.org.uk/post/1477/apache-http-server-optimization-part-2/ Tue, 29 Jun 2010 18:27:21 +0000 http://www.internetblog.org.uk/post/1477/apache-http-server-optimization-part-2/ Apache Software Foundation LogoMinSpareServers and MaxSpareServers – Each virtual server on Apache uses its own set of child processes. With these settings, you can control how many spare processes Apache will run while waiting for more requests. When a child process reaches its maximum requests, the spare processes will be used. On a server with more than 2GB of RAM, you can use a higher number of spare servers to increase speed. If you do not have much RAM to spare, setting the max too high can cause problems.

MinSpareServers 5
MaxSpareServers 10

MaxRequestsPerChild – This is the maximum number of requests a child process will receive before it is killed. Make sure this setting is not too low, or it will create unnecessary load on Apache when it restarts the child.

MaxRequestsPerChild 1000 (for 1GB of RAM, 10,000 for 2GB)

KeepAlive and MaxKeepAliveRequests – This determines how long TCP connections are kept open for requests. Setting this higher will speed up HTML and Image downloading, but it can also add stress to the server. Whether or not to use KeepAlive depends on the purpose of your server. For a hosting server with shared hosting accounts, KeepAlive will probably just add too much CPU intensive stress. For a server with a single site that serves a lot of documents and demands speed (something like a wiki), you might want to keep it on.

KeepAlive off (or on – your choice)

Intel May Release a 10-core Xeon https://www.internetblog.org.uk/post/1469/intel-may-release-a-10-core-xeon/ Fri, 25 Jun 2010 15:13:39 +0000 http://www.internetblog.org.uk/post/1469/intel-may-release-a-10-core-xeon/ Xeon processor upside down with golden connectors
Rumors are circulating that Intel will soon announce their newest Xeon processor with a whopping 10 cores. Intel release notes from the upcoming Hot Chips conference, and on the list of announcements is “Westmere-EX: A 20-Thread Server CPU”. With hyperthreading, the operating system treats each core like two processors (i.e. two threads). In this case, 20 threads would be the processor has 10 cores.

Intel is neither confirming nor denying the claims, meaning that they are probably true. Their last Xeon processor, the 7500 had eight cores, and it stands to reason that ten would be the next logical choice. In the past, they have jumped in higher increments (i.e. four cores to eight), but as the amount increases, it will be more difficult to fit more on a chip. Therefore, moving up two increments is still significant.

Xeon processors are popular in many hardware server lines, and it is common to see web hosting dedicated servers powered with two, four, or eight-core Xeon processors. Many run a 64-bit version of Linux, such as CentOS.

Source: Hardware Central
Photo: Flickr

ARM CEO Promises Server CPUs in 2011 https://www.internetblog.org.uk/post/1263/arm-ceo-promises-server-cpus-in-2011/ Thu, 29 Apr 2010 21:08:22 +0000 http://www.internetblog.org.uk/post/1263/arm-ceo-promises-server-cpus-in-2011/ ARM processor from HP printer
Warren East, CEO of Arm Holdings revealed that he expects servers based on ARM multicore processors to arrive in 2011. ARM processors are best known in the mobile device market, especially smartphones, because of their low power consumption.

Normally, low power consumption equates to low speed, which is fine for handheld devices but not for servers. Nevertheless, East argued that their multicore ARM processors are now “pushing up to 2GHz”. While this is still a far cry from the speed being delivered by current Intel and AMD server chips, it has potential.

At this point, there is no reason to suspect ARM will even have room to squeeze into the server processor market, even if their chips do start to come close to or match Intel and AMD performance. Still, many companies may have room for ARM-powered servers. Lowering energy consumption in data centers has become a concern, and ARM could offer an alternative, low-power solution.

Source: Tom’s Hardware
Photo: Wikimedia Commons

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.0 Beta Released https://www.internetblog.org.uk/post/1240/red-hat-enterprise-linux-60-beta-released/ Fri, 23 Apr 2010 19:46:33 +0000 http://www.internetblog.org.uk/post/1240/red-hat-enterprise-linux-60-beta-released/ Redhat logoAs anticipated, the Linux giant Red Hat has released the first beta of the 6th version of its long-awaited enterprise server operating system, Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL). The new OS offers greater server scalability by increasing the strength and performance of KVM hypervisor, its kernel-based virtualization infrastructure.

Rather than a maximum of 16 CPUs under which KVM could run, it now can handle up to 64 and a terabyte of memory. Red Hat also focussed on increasing I/O throughput of the KVM virtual machines.

RHEL will run Linux kernel version 2.6.33 and will also have backwards compatibility with previous versions of RHEL kernels. They will continue to support kernel versions for 7 years. Although RHEL is a commercial Linux distribution that requires licensing, many smaller web servers also run run free and open source versions of it, such as CentOS. Red Hat’s primary business is enterprise-level Linux servers, with an annual revenue of $652 million.

Source: InformationWeek

Finding Linux files with "locate" https://www.internetblog.org.uk/post/1196/finding-linux-files-with-locate/ Mon, 12 Apr 2010 17:41:10 +0000 http://www.internetblog.org.uk/post/1196/finding-linux-files-with-locate/ Kid with magnifying glass
There are a few of ways to find files on a Linux server, but most of them involve actually searching through each file in the filesystem until the correct one is located. This can be time consuming and taxing on the server’s CPU load, especially if you have a lot of files.

Linux has two commands that make searching a little easier: locate and slocate. Unlike other find utilities, locate searches through a database that contains information about the filesystem, bringing up the search results almost instantaneously. The command to update the database is called “updatedb”, and many Linux distributions have the command run via cron every day.

The alternative version of locate, called slocate, is a security-enhanced version that only allows the user to find files he or she has the permission to access. While locate is a great tool for finding things on a server, it does have its issues. For one, you will only find files that were added or changed prior to the last updatedb execution. Furthermore, the very process of updating the database can be taxing on the server, even if it is only once a day. For the right situations, however, locate is a very useful Linux tool.

Photo Source: Flickr

Viewing hardware information in Linux https://www.internetblog.org.uk/post/1120/viewing-hardware-information-in-linux/ Mon, 22 Mar 2010 15:17:21 +0000 http://www.internetblog.org.uk/post/1120/viewing-hardware-information-in-linux/ cpuinfo output Linux
Question: How do I view hardware information about my Linux server?

Answer: If you are running your own dedicated server, you will be swamped with operating system and software management, network security, and a host of other responsibilities, but you should not neglect the server hardware itself. There are a few common ways that Linux system administrators check their hardware:

1. /proc – This is an entire directory filled with system information. For example, to view information about the server’s CPUs, type from the command line:

# cat /proc/cpuinfo

For RAM information type:

# cat /proc/meminfo

3. System logs – Many of the hardware events will be recorded by the kernel logs. To view hardware information, simply type:

# dmesg

4. lspci – When you need information about internal expansion cards, just type:

# lspci

5. lshw – Finally, for the motherload of all general hardware information, type:

# lshw